The Monterrey Consensus and Doha Declaration note that domestic capital markets (including equity, bond and insurance markets) can play a key role in mobilizing capital to finance development. The Addis Agenda builds on these, and also stresses the importance of a regulatory framework aimed at incentivizing longer term investment and aligning markets with sustainable development, along with appropriate capital market institutions and architecture.
Domestic bond markets in developing countries have exhibited significant growth in some countries since the 1990s, reaching a total of USD15 trillion as of 2015. In Asia and Latin America, in particular, the share of domestic debt rose from an average of around 40 per cent in 1990 to around 75 per cent in 2010. However the totals mask significant variance across countries and regions, with most local currency debt issued in middle income countries in Asia, Latin America, and Europe, and minimal issuance in Africa and LDCs. Capital markets remain underdeveloped across much of the developing world, even in countries which have increased domestic issuance. This is reflected in the short maturities of much of the domestic borrowing. Outside of Asia, the proportion of domestic debt with maturities of over 5 years, while rising, remains fairly low. While debt with maturities of over 5 years has risen to over 60 per cent of domestic debt in Asia, it remains at around 10 per cent in Latin America.
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- In recent years, there have been four main trends:1)an increase in the applications and designs of insurance products, including for protecting farmers and agri-businesses losses due to weather risks and for social safety in relation to natural disasters (including droughts).2) improved data and new technologies, including satellites, drones, and terrestrial measures, which improve the accuracy and granularity of weather observations for specific locations, and enables design of better insurance products.
3)due to climate change there is increasing awareness amongst various stakeholders on the need to develop crop and livestock insurance products. 4)there is increasing recognition that programs to develop crop and livestock insurance need to be accompanied by measures to reduce exposure to climatic risks in agricultural and livestock sectors. Link Disaster Risk Finance Insurance Program (DRFIP).