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National level institutions and mechanisms to strengthen science, technology and innovation

Governments recognized in the Addis Agenda that various mechanisms can be used to incentivize and finance STI, including institutionalized or ad hoc partnerships among relevant stakeholders, innovation funds, support to  traditional knowledge, innovation and practices of indigenous peoples.

Setting up innovation funds

In the Addis Agenda, Member States committed to considering setting up innovation funds to support innovative enterprises, particularly during research, development and demonstration phases. Several such funds have been established, both before and after the Addis Conference.

The UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (released in November 2015) identified more than 35 national innovation funds in more than 24 countries, most of them developing. The majority of the funds are endowed with domestic public resources, though some also receive private contributions, for example a share of revenue from taxes on the profit of mining or energy companies. Almost all activities supported by the funds are located within the respective countries. While the funds cover a broad spectrum of sectors and activities, there is a concentration in areas such as clean energy, science and technology, and health. Several funds aim to create links with the private sector in these areas.

Promoting entrepreneurship, including business incubators

UNECE conducted Innovation Performance Reviews in four countries in transition. Based on the recommendations made in these reviews, the four countries have undertaken measures to improve innovation governance, reform universities and academic institutions, invest in techno parks and business incubators, improve the business and investment climate for innovative start-ups and small and medium-sized enterprises, strengthen international cooperation in science and research, and reform public research financing to encourage cooperation with industry.

Recognising the contributions from traditional knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous peoples and local communities

The Convention on Biological Diversity was opened for signature on 5 June 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (the Rio "Earth Summit"). It remained open for signature until 4 June 1993, by which time it had received 168 signatures. The Convention entered into force on 29 December 1993, which was 90 days after the 30th ratification.

The Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 is comprised of a shared vision, a mission, strategic goals and 20 ambitious yet achievable targets, collectively known as the Aichi Targets. The Strategic Plan serves as a flexible framework for the establishment of national and regional targets and it promotes the coherent and effective implementation of the three objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity.

Aichi Target 18 reads: "By 2020, the traditional knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, and their customary use of biological resources, are respected, subject to national legislation and relevant international obligations, and fully integrated and reflected in the implementation of the Convention with the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities, at all relevant levels".

59 countries have presented national targets that are related to Aichi Target 18. The national targets (or equivalent) are taken from the NBSAPs received since COP-10, fifth national reports or separate submissions and provide examples of national targets established by Parties that contribute to the implementation of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets.

Using public funding to enable critical projects to remain in the public domain and strive for open access to research for publicly funded projects

The open access availability of research articles varies by subject. Some progress has been made since the adoption of the Addis Agenda on the commitment to consider using public funding so that critical projects would in the public domain. For example, EU member states decided that by 2020, scientific publications on the results of research supported by public and public-private funds must be freely accessible to everyone.