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Private sector efforts and initiatives on environmental, social and governance (ESG) factors

Sustainable development goal (SDG) 12 encourages companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle. The Addis Agenda takes this further and encourages greater accountability by the private sector to embrace business models that have social and environmental impacts, and that operate sustainably. Private sector efforts and initiatives are an integral part of the Addis Agenda, and essential to the achievement of the 2030 Agenda.

International efforts to combat tax avoidance and evasion

Tax avoidance is a legal practice, and internationally involves tax planning and arbitrage across borders. Tax evasion is an illegal action that is, in most countries, characterized as a crime. To combat both tax avoidance and evasion, increasing the availability of information for tax administrations has been at the core of the recent initiatives in international tax cooperation.

Capacity building for domestic revenue mobilisation

Intergovernmental organizations such as the United Nations, IMF, the World Bank Group and the OECD hold a variety of training programs in different areas of tax, to build capacity for countries that need assistance. Many of the most recent developments in international transparency, cooperation and taxation will require a heightened standard for the countries who implement them. Dealing with these standards is particularly difficult for developing countries, some of whom have limited resources and capacity to efficiently administer and enforce domestic tax compliance.

National development banks

The Addis Agenda notes the role that well-functioning national development banks can play in financing sustainable development, with a countercyclical role, especially during crises. Specifically, the Addis Agenda calls on national banks to expand their contributions in relevant areas.

Extractives and resources sector

The Addis Agenda highlights the importance of transparency in the extractive sector to assist populations of resource-rich countries to hold their governments accountable for the proceeds of these activities.

Tobacco taxation

The Addis Agenda supports price and tax measures on tobacco as an effective and important means to reduce tobacco consumption and health-care costs, and represent a revenue stream for financing for development in many countries, especially if implemented as part of a comprehensive strategy of prevention and control.


Tax administration

The Addis Action Agenda highlights the need to enhance revenue administration. Countries have taken important steps to strengthen the institutional framework necessary to increase their potential tax revenue over the last five years. This section explores the tools available for Member States to improve tax administration.

Tax policy effectiveness and transparency

The Addis Agenda emphasises that States should improve the fairness, transparency, efficiency and effectiveness of tax systems, including by broadening the tax base and continuing efforts to integrate the informal sector into the formal economy.